Concerns rise over instructing as over 9 million fail UTME in seven years

The poor efficiency of scholars on the Unified Tertiary Matriculation Examination has raised issues over system points like unqualified lecturers dotting the tutorial panorama,  ‘LAOLU AFOLABI writes

About 9.17 million out of a complete of 11.9 million candidates who sat the Unified Tertiary Matriculation Examination carried out by the Joint Admissions Matriculation Board between 2018 and 2024 scored under 200 cross mark.

As the typical failure price within the seven years stands at 78.29 per cent, educationists have recognized causes for the poor efficiency.

Following the discharge of the 2024 United Tertiary Matriculation Examination outcomes by the Joint Admissions and Matriculation Board, Nigeria finds itself embroiled in a heated debate over the state of its training system.

The announcement, made by the Registrar, Prof Ishaq Oloyede, on Monday, April 29, 2024, stirred controversy and issues amongst stakeholders nationwide.

With a complete of 1,904,189 candidates sitting the examination, the revelation that 76.1 per cent scored under 200 out of 400 factors sparked discussions on numerous fronts.

In the outcomes launched by JAMB, a complete of 1,904,189 candidates sat the examination. While a number of outcomes had been withheld, the board launched 1,842,464 outcomes, whereby 76.1 per cent of the candidates obtained lower than 200.

Giving a breakdown, Prof. Oloyede famous that, “8,401 candidates scored 300 and above; 77,070 scored 250 and above; 439,974 scored 200 and above, while 1,402,490 scored below 200.”

On May 7, JAMB cleared and launched the outcomes of 531 extra candidates.

A press release by its spokesman, Fabian Benjamin, stated this was a part of the 64,000 withheld outcomes for additional investigations into doable examination misconduct.

On May 15, the board launched an extra 36,540 outcomes, taking the full outcomes launched to 1,879,437, in line with a press release by Benjamin.

Finally, on Sunday, June 2, 2024, JAMB launched an extra 3,921 outcomes and, in one other assertion by its spokesperson, Benjamin, the board stated 24,535 would retake the examination.

From systemic flaws to pupil negligence, the explanations behind the alarming failure price are beneath intense scrutiny.

The growth generated loads of controversies within the training system. While some are pointing fingers at JAMB for the poor conduct of the examination, others blame the scholars for the lacklustre efficiency.

Relatively a number of dad and mom too didn’t spare the Computer-Based-Test centres the place the examinations had been carried out nationwide, blaming system glitches as the rationale for the mass failure.

However, a former Executive Secretary of the National Universities Commission, Prof Peter Okebukola, counseled JAMB Registrar, Prof Oloyede and his workforce, saying that with the profitable conduct, JAMB had introduced respectability, transparency and credibility to the conduct of public examinations.

For the poor leads to the 2024 examination, some training stakeholders blamed Nigeria’s instructional system, the dad and mom, college students and social media for the failure price.

The stakeholders, due to this fact, known as for holistic reforms of the sector and known as on the federal government to behave quick to stem the downward pattern.

Moreover, because the highlight shifts to the standard of instructing personnel, statistics by the Universal Basic Education Commission make clear the pervasive difficulty of unqualified lecturers plaguing Nigeria’s fundamental training system amongst different multifaceted challenges going through Nigeria’s instructional panorama within the aftermath of the 2024 UTME outcomes.

Some training stakeholders lamented insufficient instructing drive and an outdated curriculum, a few of the components they stated contributed to the decline within the success price Nigerian college students had been famous for.

In 2013, the CBT was formally adopted in Nigeria by the JAMB for the only real function of administering the UTME standardised examinations.

On Monday, March 9, 2015, JAMB imprinted a landmark in its then 37-year historical past by starting the primary complete CBT. Though CBT was launched in 2013, it was not made obligatory till March 9, 2015. The board had, till the interval, relied on Paper-Based Tests.

A have a look at the historical past of JAMB exhibits that the federal navy authorities arrange the examination physique with the authorized instrument establishing it promulgated by Act No. 2 of 1978 of the Federal Military Government on February 13, 1978.

By August 1988, the Federal Executive Council amended Decree No. 2 of 1978 to empower the board to conduct matriculation examinations for entry into all polytechnics and faculties of training within the nation and to put suitably certified candidates within the accessible locations in these establishments.

Since its institution, the board has been solely chargeable for the conduct of examinations within the universities and later, polytechnics and faculties of training throughout the nation.

At the introduction of the CBT in 2015, there have been noticed glitches as anticipated of a brand new system with teething issues. In 2017, Prof Oloyede, whereas asserting the discharge of the end result, lamented the widespread examination malpractices throughout the nation aided by dad and mom, lecturers and CBT centres.

He disclosed that a few of the CBT centres exploited the candidates by intentionally distorting their knowledge in order that they might come again to pay more money for corrections. Over the years, the examination physique has been in a position to stabilise the system.

The failure price noticeable within the 2024 train didn’t simply start; it had been a recurring determine since, at the least, 2018 when the examination physique commenced reeling out figures of success and failure charges.

In 2018, round 1.19 million college students, making 74.1 per cent of candidates who sat the examination, scored under 200. By 2019, the determine rose to 1.40 million, 77.0 per cent of scholars who sat the examination. It additional elevated in 2020, with 1.54 million college students failing to attain at the least 200 marks within the UTME, with a 79.2 per cent failure price.

By 2021, the post-COVID-19 12 months, 1.14 million candidates scored under 200, leading to an 87.2 per cent failure price. The 2022 and 2023 outcomes weren’t encouraging both, as 1.33 million and 1.17 million, representing 77.8 per cent and 76.6 per cent of candidates, scored under 200 cross marks.

A 76.1 failure price within the 2024 UTME is equated to 760,000 college students out of 1,000,000 scoring lower than 50 per cent within the train. The growth additionally implies that for each 100 college students, about 76 scored under common and will, due to this fact, not compete favourably with their counterparts.

In a report by Saturday PUNCH, some dad and mom and lecturers argued that there was no justification for the outcomes as launched by JAMB, as some registered candidates couldn’t sit the examination resulting from community glitches and a scarcity of pc techniques.

They thus puzzled how JAMB concluded that 76.1 per cent failed whereas some had been but to put in writing the examination.

However, as of the time JAMB launched the outcomes on April 29, 2024, the examination physique had concluded the conduct of the examination.

It introduced the full variety of 1,842,464 outcomes out of the over 1.94 million candidates that registered for the examination on April 29, 2024, the final day of the examination.

By Tuesday, May 7, 2024, the examination physique launched the outcomes of an extra 531 candidates, taking the full variety of outcomes launched to the general public to 1,842,897.

Beyond the system glitches and different experiences, some Nigerians blamed the poor efficiency on social media.

Most of the scholars had been accused of squandering precious research time on TikTookay, Instagram and others. They had been busy creating content material, as a substitute of giving the examination the focus it required.

As ordinary with examinations, whereas some can have good outcomes to indicate, another classes of scholars will lament failure. As JAMB launched the UTME outcomes, some dad and mom and colleges celebrated the successes recorded by their wards. Even some state governors celebrated their excessive performers.

A pupil of St. Anthony’s Secondary School, Ikenga, Imo State, Master Chijioke Alexander Onuorah, reportedly obtained a cumulative rating of 324, scoring 91 in Physics, 74 in Biology, 92 in Chemistry and 67 in English.

In Kwara State, Governor AbdulRahman AbdulRazaq on his X deal with introduced the results of Master Samuel Olanrewaju Oluwasemilore of Government Secondary School, Omu Aran, who scored 358 within the exams

The PUNCH experiences that the governor congratulated the Great 30 (college students) throughout a go to to the Eucharistic Heart of Jesus Model College, Ilorin. The college students obtained between 300 and 355 marks within the examination.

Former President of ASUU, Professor Biodun Ogunyemi, in an interview with Arise TV, lamented that college students attend colleges with insufficient studying amenities. He additionally blamed the political leaders for failing to prioritise training, particularly for the poor.

He stated nearly all of those that carried out poorly within the UTME got here from severely deprived backgrounds and had been left within the care of untrained lecturers.

Unqualified lecturers in fundamental colleges

Teachers in Basic Education in Nigeria, from statistics obtained from UBEC, culled from @StatiSense, confirmed there have been 1.69 million complete lecturers in Nigeria, with these certified being 1.19 million. The unqualified lecturers had been put at 493,000.

The report additional acknowledged that 29 per cent of Basic Education Teachers in Nigeria usually are not certified to show.

Breaking it down, public colleges have a complete of 789,000 lecturers, with 652,000 certified and 137,000 not certified. In public colleges, unqualified lecturers are 17 per cent.

For personal colleges, there are 897,000 lecturers altogether. Of this determine, 541,000 are certified, whereas 40 per cent of the determine, totalling 356,000 not certified to show.

The fundamental training covers Early Childhood Care Development and Education, main faculty and junior secondary faculty.

According to the 2022 UBEC report, the highest 5 states most affected by having unqualified lecturers for the ECCDE are Bayelsa at 56 per cent, Ondo, 49 per cent, Taraba, 48 per cent, Lagos, 47 per cent and Rivers, at 45 per cent.

For main colleges, there are 40.4 per cent of unqualified lecturers in Kebbi, 40.4 per cent in Lagos, 38.3 per cent in Bayelsa, 37.8 per cent in Borno and 37.3 per cent in Rivers.

For JSS lessons, Edo leads with 37.2 per cent of unqualified lecturers, adopted by Bayelsa, additionally with 37.2 per cent. Rivers has 34.8 per cent, Akwa Ibom has 34.5 per cent, and Kaduna has 32.5 per cent.

In Bauchi State public colleges, there are 15.21 per cent unqualified lecturers in ECCDE, 14.22 per cent in main colleges and 10.03 per cent in JSS lessons, whereas for personal colleges, there are 31.25 per cent in ECCDE, 33.32 per cent in main colleges and 31.68 per cent in JSS lessons.

Anambra State within the South-East has in its public colleges, 23.97 per cent unqualified lecturers in ECCDE, 15.96 per cent in main colleges; 20.61 per cent in JSS lessons, whereas there are 50.32 per cent unqualified in ECCDE personal colleges, 35.95 per cent in main colleges and 28.61 per cent in JSS lessons.

In Kaduna State public colleges, there are 12.96 per cent unqualified lecturers in ECCDE, 14.04 per cent in main colleges and 27.53 per cent in JSS lessons, whereas for personal colleges, there are 38.54 per cent unqualified lecturers in ECCDE, 40.85 per cent in main colleges and 36.48 per cent in JSS lessons.

In Akwa Ibom public colleges, there are 6.73 per cent unqualified lecturers in ECCDE, 6.21 per cent in main colleges and 31.60 per cent in JSS lessons, whereas in personal colleges within the state, there are 40.8 per cent unqualified lecturers within the ECCDE, 36.90 per cent in main colleges and 37.43 per cent in JSS lessons.

According to the information, 12 states topped the record of unqualified lecturers of their main colleges. Kebbi leads with 40.44 per cent, adopted by Lagos, additionally with 40.44 per cent. Bayelsa got here third with 38.3 per cent, adopted by Borno, 37.8 per cent, Rivers, 37.3 per cent, Sokoto, 35.2 per cent, Ondo, 34.0 per cent, Yobe, 32.7 per cent, Taraba, 31.2 per cent, Ogun, 31.0 per cent, Zamfara, 30.8 per cent and Gombe, 30.7 per cent.

For JSS lessons, Edo leads the highest 12 states with 37.2 per cent of unqualified lecturers, a place shared with Bayelsa, with 37.2 per cent as properly. Rivers has 34.8 per cent, Akwa Ibom has 34.5 per cent, Kaduna has 32.5 per cent, Ogun, 31.4 per cent, Lagos, 31.3 per cent, Niger, 28.6 per cent, Taraba, 28.3 per cent, Osun, 26.5 per cent, Delta, 26.3 per cent and Cross River, 26.3 per cent.

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The high 5 states with the best unqualified lecturers in ECCDE are Bayelsa, with 56 per cent, Ondo, 49 per cent, Taraba, 48 per cent, Lagos, 47 per cent and Rivers, 45 per cent.

For main colleges, the highest 5 are Kebbi, 40.4 per cent, Lagos, 40.4 per cent, Bayelsa, 38.3 per cent, Borno, 37.8 per cent and Rivers, 37.3 per cent, whereas the highest 5 in JSS lessons are Edo, 37.2 per cent, Bayelsa, 37.2 per cent, Rivers, 34.8 per cent, Akwa Ibom, 34.5 per cent and Kaduna, 32.5 per cent.

Zonal distribution of the statistics exhibits that within the South-West, there are 42.58 per cent unqualified lecturers in ECCDE, 39.89 per cent within the South-East, 35.80 per cent within the North-Central, 35.46 per cent within the South-South, 35.19 per cent within the North-East and 30.79 per cent within the North-West.

Distribution by area exhibits that Northern Nigeria has 33.72 per cent unqualified lecturers, whereas Southern Nigeria has 40.04 per cent unqualified lecturers. Overall, for ECCDE, in line with the 2022 statistics, Nigeria has a complete of 37.51 per cent unqualified lecturers.

The query is: ‘What are the measures put in place to address this issue of unqualified teachers in our educational system in Nigeria?’ The fundamental training system rests extra on LGAs. The knowledge exhibits that a couple of in each 4 lecturers in Nigeria’s fundamental training system isn’t certified to show.

In public colleges, it’s nearly one in each 5 lecturers, whereas in personal colleges; it’s two in each 5 lecturers. From the information, there are extra unqualified lecturers in each degree of fundamental training in personal colleges than of their public faculty counterparts.

What educators say

Speaking on the event, the pioneer Vice Chancellor of First Technical University, Ibadan, Oyo State, Professor Ayobami Salami, “When the foundation is destroyed, there is nothing that can be done.”

Speaking with The PUNCH, he stated the rot had been there over time nevertheless it was simply manifesting, including that the rots in lots of different levels of the training sector would manifest with time.

He lamented the poor funding in training by successive governments, neglect of the sector, non-recruitment of lecturers and provision of amenities for a conducive studying atmosphere.

“I’ll level out my alma mater right here for example. It is the previous boys chargeable for using lecturers and for the supply of infrastructure within the faculty.

“Now since the government is not paying teachers handsomely well; some qualified ones have pitched tents with private schools, instead of helping to resuscitate the public institution,” he stated.

He stated for main colleges within the nation, there was nothing to put in writing residence about anymore.

A former Vice Chancellor of Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Prof Eyitope Ogunmodede, handed a vote of confidence in JAMB however blamed the scholars and their dad and mom for the failure price.

“JAMB has been conducting entrance examinations into higher institutions since 1978, 46 years ago now and has been consistent with its excellent performance and will not trade its standards. So, I passed a vote of confidence in the ability of JAMB to sustain the standard over the years,” he stated.

He stated his expertise as a college administrator had made him perceive that some college students intentionally wished to fail the examinations as a result of they didn’t need to attend public greater establishments.

He acknowledged additional, “Two points – Some college students actually wished to fail the examinations – as a result of they’re from wealthy houses they usually need their dad and mom to sponsor their training exterior the shores of the nation or in some personal universities.

“They do not want to pass through the rigours of public institutions. There are instances where some of these students said they don’t know they would even pass the exams as they intentionally wanted to fail.”

Speaking on the usual of training in Nigeria, he believed the usual is greater now, with higher curriculum and improved technique of analysis however highlighted insufficient instructing drive, poor infrastructure and unhealthy remedy of lecturers as components militating towards the success of Nigerian college students.

“In a state of affairs the place lecturers are poorly remunerated, main a lot of them to have interaction in extra-curricular actions throughout faculty interval, which is able to affect the efficiency of their college students in the long term.

“There are instances of schools in the country where teachers are well paid and students produce very good results,” he acknowledged.

The Rector of Federal Polytechnic, Ado-Ekiti, Dr Temitope Alake, who stated he knew the workings in main and secondary colleges, faculties of training and the polytechnic, blamed the scholars for serving to their wards to put in writing even main faculty frequent entrance examinations.

According to him, “With that, the ability of such students will not be reflected. Some may even manage to get high grades in WAEC and JAMB, but by the time they spend their first and second semester in higher institutions, they have already withdrawn. Some of them passed through miracle centres for their external examinations. Some students come to schools with fake certificates. What I mean is that some of the students come to school with certificates bearing their names and identities, but not their contents.”

He lamented that the extent of participation of scholars in educational issues was changing into low, with so many distractions round them.

“The degree of participation of scholars in educational issues is abysmally low. Unrestricted entry to social media is a social hazard within the nation. The studying tradition is not there. To worsen the state of affairs, AI is now developed and it’s serving to to put in writing the thesis and all that at greater training ranges.

“Ask a master’s degree holder to write a letter of application without using AI, then you will see the problem. They would not be able to write appropriately. Technology is good, but when it is not regulated, there is bound to be poor performance in almost all the stages of education,” he stated.

He additionally decried the near-zero worth system within the nation and, due to this fact, known as for worth reorientation.

“Our worth system can be at level zero. The boys are after emergency wealth (yahoo). These are distractions. Nowadays, a lot of the finest awards are received by feminine college students.

“Nigeria got it wrong the very moment it removed Civics Education from the school curriculum and changed it to Social Studies. Students now see politicians, musicians and all that as models, no longer the patriots. Nigeria needs value reorientation,” he added.

He chided dad and mom for his or her incapability to groom their wards, particularly as that they had longer intervals to spend with them.

“Parents spend more time with their wards, more than the hours they spend in schools, but most parents do not have time for the students anymore. Parents should be more involved in monitoring their wards’ educational growth,” he stated.

While lauding JAMB for consistency in its commonplace over time, the don known as for the return of studying tradition amongst college students to return to the glory days.

“Library and bookshops are collapsing. People prefer the internet to seek information online these days. We should revive reading culture among these students,” he added.

Also talking, the Vice Chancellor, Hallmark University, Ijebu-Itele, Ogun State, Professor Segun Odunola, listed the dearth of presidency’s dedication to sufficient instructional funding, lack of sufficient competent manpower within the sector, lack of studying tradition amongst college students and lack of parental financial energy to finance all-round instructional helps for his or her wards as a few of the issues bedevilling the tutorial sector within the nation.

He additional listed the affect of social media, and insufficient dedication to instructing by lecturers resulting from poor remuneration as different components contributing to the failure price at UTME, WAEC and NECO.

According to him, the failure price had been constant within the final couple of years.

“The authorities wants to hold out an in-depth investigation to know the explanations for the failure price. We should look into the themes the scholars fail most, study the subjects they’ve difficulties with and consultants will proffer options to unravel the issues.

“Most of us went to public colleges however can’t ship our youngsters to public colleges anymore due to lack of sufficient infrastructures and lack of sufficient competent manpower within the sector.

“We should work to enhance the studying tradition among the many college students. The studying tradition is low, little question about that. Most faculty libraries are empty and usually are not stocked with present books.

“In our personal time, if you don’t have lectures you go to the library, these days, even in universities, the one interval when the library is full is when the examinations are shut.

“There should be sufficient funding for training to supply essential infrastructures within the lecture rooms and a conducive atmosphere for college students to be taught.

He additionally decried the disparity within the cut-off marks for universities, polytechnics and faculties of training, stating that the below-average necessities for faculties of training would imply repeating the failure since a lot of the merchandise of those faculties would nonetheless come round to coach one other set of scholars.

He known as for an replace of lecturers’ data by exposing them to trendy instructing methodologies and on-the-job retraining.

Failure didn’t begin this 12 months, there should be reform in training sector – Alao-Akala

The lawmaker representing Ogbomoso North/Ogbomoso South/Oriire Federal Constituency, Olamijuwon Alao-Akala, stated the efficiency of scholars on this 12 months’s UTME was not encouraging.

The lawmaker, who stated he felt unhappy in regards to the growth, added that everybody – authorities, faculty, dad and mom and society – wanted to indicate concern.

He, due to this fact, known as for a complete overhaul of the training system within the nation.

In a press release he signed, the lawmaker revealed that 2016 was the final time greater than 30 per cent of scholars scored above common within the JAMB examination.

In the assertion, titled ‘JAMB 2024 Performance Worries Me’, the previous council chairman stated, “This wave of poor efficiency by Nigerian college students in UTME didn’t begin right this moment. Since 2018, at the least 74 per cent of candidates have scored under the typical mark of 200 within the train, a sign that whereas the most recent determine is regarding, it’s solely the most recent mark in a disturbing sample of poor efficiency that began seven years in the past.

“The final time greater than 30 per cent of scholars scored above common within the train was in 2016 when 35 per cent of candidates scored above 200.

“What this indicates is that while it’s easy to blame participants in this year’s exercise for their performance and point fingers at various issues like the rise in access to mobile devices among their demography, the problem is deeper than that and, as such, must be addressed from a more comprehensive lens.”

He stated the outcomes confirmed that the nation’s training sector has additionally failed and is now necessary to overtake the sector.

“Firstly, the federal government should as a matter of precedence considerably improve the share of allocation to the training sector, particularly main and secondary ranges.

“This funding should be backed by a renewed coverage plan that displays the present standing of issues within the sector and is predicated on reasonable efficiency goals within the brief and long run.

“Similarly, the federal government ought to perform a complete assessment to make sure that lecturers in colleges throughout the nation are certified to show college students.

“This must be followed up with a comprehensive review of the remuneration for teachers to keep them motivated and a revamp of facilities in schools to ensure the environment is conducive for teachers to teach and students to learn,” he stated.

He additionally known as on the federal government to increase its regulatory powers over training to privately-owned colleges, to make sure the usual of training meets an appropriate benchmark.

He additionally requested dad and mom to play their half by creating an enabling atmosphere for his or her wards at residence and moderating the entry they needed to the web, prioritising instructional content material over peripherals.



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